The role of free public transport

through the experience of Dunkirk

With over 80% of the city razed to the ground by the end of the war, Dunkirk gave the car pride of place in the planning of its reconstruction. Owing to this forced town planning, the modal share of public transport (below the 5% mark in 2015) did not fit in with the ambition of a conurbation with 200,000 inhabitants where over a quarter of the households did not have a car. Added to this were the knock-on effects of the over-representation of the car in the urban environment: pollution, congestion in the city centre, excessive expenditure for the households etc.